atypia and high-risk lesions

Atypia or high-risk lesions of the breast are lesions that are not breast cancer, however they are not definitely benign either. Atypia and high-risk lesions can carry additional breast cancer risk for the future.

breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Contrary to popular belief, only a minority of breast cancers are caused by a genetic fault (such as the BRCA gene). According to evidence and experience, almost all breast cancers (about 95%) happen without a very clear or specific reason.

breast cysts

Breast cysts are a very common condition and they are not cancerous. It is thought that they develop naturally as the breast changes with age due to some variations in hormonal levels.

breast infection and abscess

An abscess is a collection of pus (infectious material) that clogs the breast ducts. It presents as a painful red lump and can be associated with high temperature and general feeling of being unwell.

breast lumps

A breast lump is the most common symptom that patients present with in the one stop breast clinic.

breast pain

Breast pain is the second most common symptom for patients who visit the breast clinic (the most common is a lump in the breast). Breast pain affects women of all ages and can be cyclical or non-cyclical i.e. related to your menstrual cycle or not.

family history and breast cancer risk

Family history is one of the most well-established risk factors for breast cancer.


A fibroadenoma is a very common, not cancerous breast condition, which often develops during the years of puberty and is the most common lump found in young women. It can usually be felt as a lump on the breast, which is well defined, soft to the touch and moves easily beneath the skin.


Gynaecomastia is a condition affecting men, in which the breast becomes enlarged.

nipple discharge

Nipple discharge is fluid coming out of the nipple. This is a common symptom affecting women of all ages. Nipple discharge can be unilateral or bilateral (i.e. affecting one or both breasts).

nipple eczema (dryness)

Nipple dryness or nipple eczema can affect the nipple itself or the pigmented skin around the nipple called the areola.